Cologne. So many connotations with that word. In contemporary perfumery it is usually described as a "men's" light fragrance. However, cologne is more of a method than a marketing word.
Developed in Cologne, Germany, cologne's are blends of citrus, herbs and alcohols to create a light, refreshing scent that is dabbed on without offense to those around the wearer. Typical ingredients include lavender, bergamot, rosemary and thyme. Because of the concentration of oils, around 2-4%, colognes are not very long-lasting but easily re-applied.
In contemporary perfumery, men's fragrances have many types of concentrations. Eau Fraiche, Cologne, Eau de Parfum, Parfum and Extraits are simply different levels of concentration. Eau Fraiche is super light and fresh and Extraits resinous and oily. Each type of concentration means different ingredients that will suit those needs.
As perfumery turns away from more gendered marketing in niche and smaller houses we hope that cologne returns to its origins as a style of perfumery and not just a placeholder for "male" scents.